Metal fabrication is a fascinating and essential process that shapes and transforms raw metal into various objects used in our daily lives. From the cars we drive to the buildings we inhabit, metal fabrication plays a crucial role in creating the structures and products that surround us. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of metal fabrication, exploring the different types of fabrication and the processes involved. Whether you’re a curious individual or a professional in the industry, this article will provide you with a deeper understanding of this vital field.

Understanding Metal Fabrication

Metal fabrication can be defined as the process of manipulating and transforming metal into desired shapes and forms. It encompasses a wide range of techniques and processes that involve cutting, bending, shaping, joining, and finishing metal to create functional and aesthetically pleasing objects. Metal fabrication can be as simple as cutting a piece of metal to a specific length or as complex as fabricating intricate structures using various materials and techniques.

Metal fabrication is an integral part of many industries, including aerospace, automotive, construction, and manufacturing. It allows for the production of customized components and structures that meet specific requirements and standards. Understanding the different types of metal fabrication and the processes involved is essential for anyone involved in the industry or interested in the field.

The Types of Metal Fabrication

Metal fabrication can be classified into three main types: industrial metal fabrication, structural metal fabrication, and commercial metal fabrication. Each type serves a distinct purpose and involves specific techniques and processes.

Industrial Metal Fabrication

Industrial metal fabrication focuses on creating parts and components used in tools and equipment. This type of fabrication often involves mass production, where standardized components are fabricated for use in various industries. Industrial metal fabrication utilizes advanced machinery and techniques to produce high-quality and precise parts.

Structural Metal Fabrication

Structural metal fabrication deals with the creation of metal structures, such as building frames and bridges. Steel is the most commonly used material in structural metal fabrication due to its strength, durability, and versatility. Structural metal fabrication requires expertise in engineering and design to ensure the creation of safe and stable structures.

Commercial Metal Fabrication

Commercial metal fabrication involves the fabrication of metal components and products for consumer goods. This type of fabrication is diverse and can range from creating automobile parts to producing appliances and furniture. Commercial metal fabrication often relies on the tools and machinery developed through industrial metal fabrication.

Major Metal Fabrication Processes

Metal fabrication processes utilize various techniques to shape, join, and finish metal. Each process serves a specific purpose and involves different tools and equipment. Let’s explore the major metal fabrication processes in detail:

Cutting and Notching

Cutting is one of the fundamental metal fabrication processes that involves dividing a piece of metal into smaller pieces of the required length. It can be done using different methods, including sawing, shearing, and plasma cutting. Notching, on the other hand, involves removing a portion of metal from the edges of a metal piece to create cutouts.

Bending and Forming

Bending and forming processes are used to shape metal into specific angles and curves. Bending is commonly applied to metal tubes, pipes, and bars, while forming involves the use of pressure to create creases or folds in the metal. These processes can be performed manually or using specialized machinery such as tube and pipe benders.

Assembling and Joining

Assembling and joining processes involve connecting different metal pieces together to create a complete structure or product. Various techniques can be used for joining, including welding, riveting, adhesives, and thread fastening. Each method has its advantages and is chosen based on the specific requirements of the project.


Casting is a metal fabrication process that involves pouring molten metal into a mold to create a desired shape. The metal is then allowed to cool and solidify, taking the shape of the mold. Casting is commonly used for mass production, where the same mold can be used repeatedly.

Drawing and Extrusion

Drawing is a process that uses tensile force to stretch metal into a thinner shape. It is commonly used in sheet metal fabrication to create cylindrical or box-like vessels. Extrusion, on the other hand, involves forcing metal through a die to create a final piece with a smaller cross-sectional area. This technique is often used to create metal pipes and bars.


Machining is a subtractive shaping process that involves removing unwanted material from a workpiece. It includes various operations such as drilling, turning, milling, and grinding. Machining is commonly used for precision work and finishing touches on metal components.

Punching and Stamping

Punching is a process that creates holes in a metal sheet using a punch press and a die. The size and shape of the holes can be customized by adjusting the punch and die. Stamping, on the other hand, involves creating indentations or embossing on a metal surface using a press or a handheld hammer.


Welding is a process of joining two or more pieces of metal together by melting the metal at the joint and allowing it to cool and solidify. It is one of the most common and widely used metal fabrication processes. Different types of welding, such as MIG, TIG, and arc welding, are chosen based on the specific requirements of the project.

Technologies and Machinery in Metal Fabrication

Metal fabrication has evolved significantly over the years, thanks to advancements in technology and machinery. Various tools and equipment are used in the metal fabrication industry to ensure precise and efficient fabrication processes. Here are some of the commonly used technologies and machinery:

  1. CNC Machines: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines are extensively used in metal fabrication. These machines are controlled by computer programs and can perform precise and complex operations with high accuracy.
  2. Lathes: Lathes are versatile machines used for shaping metal symmetrically around an axis. They can be used to create cylindrical shapes, such as cranks, shafts, and bearings.
  3. Tube and Pipe Benders: Tube and pipe benders are essential tools in metal fabrication, especially for creating curved and angled metal components. These machines can bend metal tubes and pipes to specific angles and radii, allowing for precise and customized fabrication.
  4. Drilling Machines: Drilling machines, also known as drilling presses, are used to create holes in metal workpieces. They come in various sizes and can perform precise drilling operations.
  5. Milling Machines: Milling machines are used to remove material from metal workpieces by rotating cutting tools. They can perform operations such as drilling, boring, and cutting to create complex shapes and finishes.
  6. Welding Machines: Welding machines are used to join metal pieces together by melting and fusing them at the joint.> LEARN MORE

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About Palmer Tool

Palmer Tool completes critical jobs on-time and on-budget. Since 1966, Palmer has taken on jobs that other shops and contractors either didn’t want, or just couldn’t do. We can fabricate parts in our shops, visit you at your plant, or meet you at on-location (ie. logging, mining, construction, etc.). From the toughest repairs to the most complex new assembly, we’ve seen and done it all. Over the past 50+ years, Palmer has maintained our reputation as a trusted expert welder and fabricator of non-ferrous alloys in demanding applications (high pressure + high temperature chemical plants). Our hard-facing applications, and robust designs, have successfully extended the service life of countless industrial “extreme service” components, saving our clients’ money! Palmer Tool and Contractors provide on-call emergency services 24/7, because we understand that in manufacturing “the clock never stops”.